Dear All,

After many objections to my last attempt, here my new reformulation of the scope note of E5 Event.

The reason is, that the definition previously given, makes the impression that events are complements of states.
The world however, to our best knowledge, is NOT compatible with an "Asynchronous State Machine". If events where complements of states and vice-versa, we would create a Closed World. The question is, in information integration, which concept has an ontological nature, i.e. can be recognized as something existing in a distinct way independent from the observer.

It appears that events are of that ontological kind, and states in general are an abstraction of the absence of events in certain parts of reality arbitrarily restricted by consideration.

Therefore, the definition of event must not use states as identifying criterion. Notwithstanding, events may initiate or terminate states however we define them.

Consider also the following: Four soldiers fight simultaneously each other. Are these 6 different fights, or one fight? Are the rats fleeing in panic part of it? I'd argue for one fight. Rats not being part, but present. That means however that the type "fighting" + the coherence of it makes up the unity and substance of the event. It appears to me, that not the states achieved, but the coherence and distinctness of some phenomena restricted to a specific type of process  make up what we intuitively regard as an event?

E5 Event

Subclass of:     E4 Period

Superclass of: E7 Activity

E63 Beginning of Existence

E64 End of Existence


Scope note:     This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

 The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

Attempt of a new one:

Scope note:         This class comprises distinct, delimited and coherent processes and interactions of material nature, in cultural, social or physical systems, involving and affecting instances of E77 Persistent Item in a characteristic way according to the kind of process. Typical examples are meetings, birth, death, actions of decision taking, making or inventing things, but also more complex and extended ones such as conferences, elections, building a castle or battles. Whereas, for instance, the continuous growth of a tree lacks the limitation of an event, its germination from a seed qualifies as event. Whereas the blowing of the wind lacks distinctness and limitation, a hurricane, a flood or an earthquake qualify as events. We even comprise mental processes under events, in case they are connected with a material externalization of their results, such as the creation of a poem, a performance or a change of intention becoming obvious by respective actions o declarations. The effects of an instance of E5 Event may not lead to relevant permanent changes of properties and relations of the items involved in it, such as not recorded performances. Of course, in order to be documented, some kind of evidence for an event must exist, be it witnesses, traces or products of the event.

Whereas instances of E4 Period require some form of coherence between its constituent phenomena, in addition, the essential constituents of instances of E5 Event should contribute to an overall effect, such as the utterances during a meeting and the listening of the audience. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event may appear as if it had an ‘instantaneous’ overall effect, but any process or interaction of material nature is extended in time and space. At a fine level, instances of E5 Event may be analysed into component phenomena and phases within a space and timeframe, and as such are to be seen as a period, regardless the size of the phenomena. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy overall effect.



 Dr. Martin Doerr
 Honorary Head of the                                                                   
 Center for Cultural Informatics
 Information Systems Laboratory  
 Institute of Computer Science             
 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   
 N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,         
 GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece