[Crm-sig] New Issue: Non-human Actors

George Bruseker george.bruseker at gmail.com
Tue Oct 12 11:29:32 EEST 2021


Hi Athina!

What causes the bird to go from a to b, I guess is the simplest way to put
it. Does it just happen? Is the bird just present in the event of its
migration?

G

On Tue, Oct 12, 2021 at 11:22 AM athinak <athinak at ics.forth.gr> wrote:

> Hello,
>
> I am probably missing something here, but regarding these databases, in
> which cases these animals are documented as actors? It seems that there
> are documentations about births and traps and capturing events, but the
> discussion is about activities carried out by them, right? From my
> experience with gbif and darwincore, which a standard that is widely
> used for biodiversity databases, haven't seen definitions of this kind
> of relationships, but  maybe I am missing things
> or I misunderstood something
>
> BRs
> Athina
>
>   Στις 2021-10-12 10:02, George Bruseker via Crm-sig έγραψε:
> > Hi all,
> >
> > Here are some examples of databases that deal with individual or
> > collectivites of animals NOT as THINGS but as AGENTS:
> >
> > EMU: Pest Tracking in Museums
> >
> >
> http://help.emu.axiell.com/v6.4/en/Topics/EMu/Traps%20and%20Pest%20Events%20modules.htm
> >
> > Here's a database that tracks the migratory paths of individual birds:
> >
> > https://nationalzoo.si.edu/migratory-birds/migratory-birds-tracking-map
> >
> > Here's a database that tracks orcas:
> >
> > https://theorcaproject.wordpress.com/killer-whale-orca-database/
> >
> > Here's a database that tracks gorillas:
> >
> > https://www.gorillasland.com/la-plaine-zoo.php
> >
> > I would say that often something doesn't get documented because it is
> > silenced by the information systems available (see the terrible
> > gorilla database), arguably what CIDOC CRM is supposed to aid in
> > getting out of (viz. Dominic's textual works issue and documenting
> > context). The fact that people are forced to shoehorn identifiable
> > individuals that they want to document and have discourse about into
> > classes that do not suit them is for me the obvious argument for
> > making classes and properties!
> >
> > Whether there are explicit fields for such data, the natural world is
> > something which unsurprisingly Cultural Heritage is interested in and
> > refers to. Orcas are, for example, highly important animals within
> > different cultural systems in Canada, they are documented and they are
> > documented not as things but as agents. So what is the pressing
> > counter point to allowing this expressivity? That there are too many
> > classes and properties. Many would make that argument about CRMinf or
> > about any of our extensions. I suppose it depends on where you
> > interest lies. By not opening these categories we effectively
> > mute/suppress this voice. Because the limits of the world are my
> > language when we choose to oppress a class we choose to oppress the
> > ability to express that object. Or we indeed force the documentation
> > of things that are considered agents as objects. This seems the
> > greater harm to my mind.
> >
> > On the expertise question, I am not sure if we required a biologist to
> > be able to model the notion of Birth or Death. Did we not use a middle
> > level understanding of everyday objects and their documentation in
> > systems in order to be support the recording of standard kinds of
> > facts of interest to a researcher? Birth and Death are not high
> > concepts of when conception begins or when the soul leaves the body,
> > they are rough and ready everyday ideas of, there was a person and an
> > event led to its end, there was a person and an event led to its
> > death. How the case of modelling animals differs is not clear to me.
> > Did we bring in financial experts model the payment class? On which
> > issues we need an expert and on which issues not is not clear, nor is
> > that expertise counts. As Rob says, having many years of experience in
> > cultural heritage documentation and analysis of such systems does not
> > count? I would think in basic matters like this, it goes back to the
> > ground of coming to a common sense modelling in line with what is
> > considered the best state of knowledge regarding the world. We KNOW
> > that the best state of knowledge is not represented by the present
> > modelling because agency is not just attributed to human beings.
> > Therefore, we are presently deliberately out of synch with the best
> > state of knowledge. I would think it behooves (pun intended) us to
> > step up to the plate and get on to making it possible to express basic
> > facts about the world that can be and are referenced in CH data
> > systems (such as the existence of animals!).
> >
> > Best,
> >
> > George
> >
> > On Tue, Oct 12, 2021 at 1:19 AM Pat Riva <pat.riva at concordia.ca>
> > wrote:
> >
> >> Hi Rob,
> >> Looking at the dates on Lassie and Misha, I see that they were
> >> created during the phase when people were trying this under an
> >> unwise modification to RDA, and not been revised since. This would
> >> no longer be valid under the latest RDA. And no one has bothered to
> >> propose MARC coding specific to this type of heading, leading to the
> >> ones that were created being shoe-horned into the personal name
> >> coding. The proportion of the huge LC names file is too small.
> >>
> >> As for the fictitious, that was a completely different argument
> >> that has also lasted years. Stems from a difficulty in
> >> distinguishing between a name and the reality behind it.
> >>
> >> But these two issues are frequently conflated in the library world
> >> by people trying to use discussion related to why one was invalid to
> >> imply the position on the other issue didn't make sense.
> >>
> >> The thing is that there is no problem about having a work about an
> >> animal or about a character (as a concept), or have photographs,
> >> films or sound recordings of an animal. but it doesn't make sense to
> >> set up a relationship where these own an item, publish a
> >> manifestation, write, compose or translate an expression, or create
> >> a work. So the relationship is other.
> >>
> >> And a person can choose a pseudonym of any sort (even one that
> >> evokes a pet name or is the same as a fictional character), that
> >> still doesn't make the person into a pet. Same as two people having
> >> the "same" name doesn't fuse them into a single human being in some
> >> sort of weird siamese twin situation.
> >>
> >> Anyhow, I just wanted to to point out that there has been a lot of
> >> ink spilled over these issues, to no real result.
> >>
> >> Pat
> >>
> >> Pat Riva
> >>
> >> Associate University Librarian, Collection Services
> >>
> >> Concordia University
> >>
> >> Vanier Library (VL-301-61)
> >>
> >> 7141 Sherbrooke Street West
> >>
> >> Montreal, QC H4B 1R6
> >>
> >> Canada
> >>
> >> pat.riva at concordia.ca
> >>
> >> -------------------------
> >>
> >> From: Robert Sanderson <azaroth42 at gmail.com>
> >> Sent: October 11, 2021 5:16 PM
> >> To: Pat Riva <pat.riva at concordia.ca>
> >> Cc: Martin Doerr <martin at ics.forth.gr>; George Bruseker
> >> <george.bruseker at gmail.com>; crm-sig at ics.forth.gr
> >> <Crm-sig at ics.forth.gr>
> >> Subject: Re: [Crm-sig] New Issue: Non-human Actors
> >>
> >> Attention This email originates from outside the concordia.ca [2]
> >> domain. // Ce courriel provient de l'exterieur du domaine de
> >> concordia.ca [2]
> >>
> >> Hi Pat,
> >>
> >> While that is certainly true from a model-theoretic perspective, in
> >> practice authorities simply create Persons for them which is, in my
> >> opinion, even worse because there is a demonstrated need which the
> >> modeling is intentionally preventing.
> >>
> >> For example in the Library of Congress:
> >> Real animal/people:
> >> Lassie: https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nb2015016669.html [3]
> >>
> >>
> >> Misha the Dolphin: https://id.loc.gov/rwo/agents/nb2017006372.html
> >> [4]
> >>
> >> And fictitious:
> >> Odie (from Garfield):
> >> https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no2017122131.html [5]
> >>
> >> Grumpy Cat: https://id.loc.gov/rwo/agents/n2013036964.html [6]
> >>
> >> In ULAN, here's a racehorse/person:
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://www.getty.edu/vow/ULANFullDisplay?find=&role=&nation=&subjectid=500353456
> >> [7]
> >>
> >> ISNI has a dog/person called Maggie Mayhem:
> >> https://isni.org/isni/ [8]0000000497302960
> >>
> >> And so on.
> >>
> >> Rob
> >>
> >> On Mon, Oct 11, 2021 at 4:50 PM Pat Riva via Crm-sig
> >> <crm-sig at ics.forth.gr> wrote:
> >>
> >> Just to remark that the library world discussed non-human actors
> >> for many years (in the literal sense of actor as in the dogs that
> >> portrayed Lassie in the TV series, or that portrayed Sykes and Paddy
> >> from Midsomer Murders, somehow it is always cute dogs that are
> >> brought up in the discussion).
> >>
> >> The desire was to list the named animal actors in the credits for
> >> the cast of a film and provide access via their "real" names the
> >> same as for the rest of the cast, and so using the same mechanisms
> >> as for human actors.
> >>
> >> This sounds like it might be fine until you realize that making the
> >> dog a valid LRM-E6 Agent means that it can have the full range of
> >> responsibility relationships to works, expressions, manifestations
> >> and items. Which becomes absurd.
> >>
> >> And while is it understood that one can easily film an individual
> >> animal, it isn't clear that it is behaving as an actor intending to
> >> create a cinematographic work in the same way that the human
> >> participants. There was also no clear consensus on which sorts of
> >> animals were individually interesting enough to merit this
> >> treatment, rather than just being viewed as an instance of their
> >> species (as in nature documentaries).
> >>
> >> The animal agent option was rejected in FRBR and again rejected in
> >> LRM, and a LRM-E6 Agent (= E39 Actor) remains restricted to either
> >> individual human beings (LRM-E7 Person) or groups of human beings
> >> (LRM-E8 Collective Agent, or F55 Collective Agent in LRMoo).
> >>
> >> The current compromise is that the animal actors, if it is desired
> >> to provide access points for them, are established as instances of a
> >> subcategory of LRM-E1 Res that is disjoint from LRM-E6 Agent. There
> >> was talk of creating some guidelines for this at one point, but I
> >> have not followed the issue since then.
> >>
> >> Pat
> >>
> >> Pat Riva
> >>
> >> Associate University Librarian, Collection Services
> >>
> >> Concordia University
> >>
> >> Vanier Library (VL-301-61)
> >>
> >> 7141 Sherbrooke Street West
> >>
> >> Montreal, QC H4B 1R6
> >>
> >> Canada
> >>
> >> pat.riva at concordia.ca
> >>
> >> -------------------------
> >>
> >> From: Crm-sig <crm-sig-bounces at ics.forth.gr> on behalf of George
> >> Bruseker via Crm-sig <crm-sig at ics.forth.gr>
> >> Sent: October 11, 2021 3:02 PM
> >> To: Martin Doerr <martin at ics.forth.gr>
> >> Cc: crm-sig at ics.forth.gr <Crm-sig at ics.forth.gr>
> >> Subject: Re: [Crm-sig] New Issue: Non-human Actors
> >>
> >> Hi Martin,
> >>
> >> I think Rob listed in the introduction to the issue the use cases of
> >> documentation of individual action of animals.
> >>
> >> It would seem that natural scientists don't only study species but
> >> also individuals.
> >>
> >> Here's a smattering of pieces culled from casual reading in the past
> >> few weeks with nice motivations and examples for these new classes.
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/sep/29/new-zealand-kea-can-use-touchscreens-but-cant-distinguish-between-real-and-virtual-worlds
> >> [9]
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://www.businessinsider.com/watch-australias-google-delivery-drone-attacked-by-raven-mid-air-2021-9?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=sf-insider-inventions&utm_medium=social
> >> [10]
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/03/what-the-crow-knows/580726/?utm_campaign=the-atlantic&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook
> >> [11]
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2021/oct/06/anicka-yi-tate-modern-turbine-hall-commission
> >> [12]
> >>
> >> All best,
> >>
> >> George
> >>
> >> On Mon, Oct 11, 2021 at 9:44 PM Martin Doerr <martin at ics.forth.gr>
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >> Dear Robert,
> >>
> >> Having collaborated with natural history museum colleagues for some
> >> years and designed a research infrastructure for biodiversity in
> >> Greece, I understand that they normally do not describe the actions
> >> of an individual in a way that information integration on the base
> >> of the individual's animal actions would be needed. They would
> >> rather state the fact that an individual of type A, showed
> >> individual behavior pattern B. They would integrate these data on a
> >> type base, and not on an individual base. We have at FORTH converted
> >> Darwin Core data of occurrences of individuals into CRMsci
> >> representations. That had so far covered the needs.
> >>
> >> A colleague in Britain had used, I think, CRM for modelling
> >> observations of Caledonian Crow observations. Since these crows do
> >> not travel, the relevant information access and exchange is still on
> >> a categorical level.
> >>
> >> Migratory birds tracking may be an application, but normally they do
> >> not describe other behavior than move, in which case we can use a
> >> Presence construct for the migration paths.
> >>
> >> Our collaboration with NHM showed that they often prefer not to use
> >> CRM for their observation data. In a large European Project, we were
> >> forced to cheat and rename all CRM concepts, so that they appeared
> >> under a "BIO" title.
> >>
> >> So, in short, we need an expert that would show us practice of
> >> modelling animal actions individually, and be willing to consider
> >> CRM...
> >>
> >> Cheers,
> >>
> >> Martin
> >>
> >> On 10/11/2021 9:13 PM, Robert Sanderson wrote:
> >>
> >> Could we clarify what sort of expert we're looking for to move the
> >> discussion forward? In particular, natural history museums seem to
> >> be at the critical intersection between CIDOC and the activities of
> >> animals. I can represent the sorts of documentary evidence from that
> >> side, and happy to reach out to colleagues at other NHMs. So I think
> >> the first aspect is covered, but I question whether we (as modelers
> >> of museum knowledge and documentation) /need/ to understand animal
> >> individuality or behavior in order to take the first step of
> >> describing an animal performing some action. Conversely, my
> >> experience has always been that when there is something to react to,
> >> it is much easier to engage with outside specialists.  It is easier
> >> to ask for opinions on something than it is to ask them to help come
> >> up with the interdisciplinary model.
> >>
> >> I also don't think it makes sense to model animal actors in great
> >> detail, down to the same level as the differences between classes in
> >> CRMTex for example. The baseline that we need to start with is much
> >> simpler.  If there isn't a fine grained concept of animal
> >> individuality, I don't think that means we can't model an individual
> >> animal at a coarser granularity, just that we shouldn't allow the
> >> ontology to describe anything that we don't understand. Even as a
> >> non-biologist, I know without any hesitation that the bird laid the
> >> egg in the nest in the Peabody Museum of Natural History, and that
> >> the herd of dinosaurs created the footprints preserved in Dinosaur
> >> State Park up the road from us. I know that a sheepdog can herd
> >> sheep and makes decisions about which way to run to accomplish the
> >> aim of getting the sheep into the next field (and when I was a
> >> little lad played the part of such a sheepdog for my uncle in New
> >> Zealand). How does the sheepdog know? Does it know that it knows? If
> >> we study 100 sheepdogs individually and in groups, what do we learn
> >> about sheepdog behavior? I don't care, and I don't think any other
> >> museum oriented documentation system would either :)
> >>
> >> Rob
> >>
> >> On Mon, Oct 11, 2021 at 11:50 AM Martin Doerr <martin at ics.forth.gr>
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >> Dear George, Robert,
> >>
> >> This makes generally sense to me as a discussion starting point.
> >> However, I‘d like to remind you that our methodology requires
> >> first a community practice of doing documentation about such things,
> >> and second domain experts for concepts that are not our primary
> >> knowledge.
> >>
> >> To my best knowledge, there does not exist any reliable concept of
> >> what individuality means across the animal kingdom, nor what a
> >> collective of such individuals is. There is an unbelievable
> >> complexity to these questions. We know from experience that any
> >> global widening of scope can blur all distinctions ontology
> >> enginerring relies on. Therefore I'd regard it as most important to
> >> find the experts first and let them speak.
> >>
> >> The reasons why we did not model animal actors is precisely the lack
> >> of an experts group to communicate with.
> >>
> >> Best,
> >>
> >> Martin
> >>
> >> On 10/11/2021 4:28 PM, George Bruseker wrote:
> >>
> >> Dear all,
> >>
> >> In preparation for the discussion of non-human actors as related to
> >> use cases arising in Linked.Art (inter alia), Rob and I have
> >> sketched some ideas back and forth to try to find a monotonic was to
> >> add the agency of animals in the first instance into CRM (proceeding
> >> in an empirical bottom up fashion) and then see where else we might
> >> also get added in (searching for the sibling class that Martin
> >> suggests and the generalization that it would need).
> >>
> >> The linked sketch provides a proposal for discussion. The background
> >> is given already in this issue.
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://drive.google.com/file/d/1RtKBvAH1N0G8yaE_io6hU2Z8MTBmH_8-/view?usp=sharing
> >> [13] (draw.io [14])
> >>
> >>
> >
> https://drive.google.com/file/d/1aCEBtXjW8M0W7qCGe9ozSMeYAH7tJ3Wr/view?usp=sharing
> >> [15] (png)
> >>
> >> Here is some argumentation.
> >>
> >> Up to now, CRM takes its scope as related to documenting intentional
> >> acts of human beings. Its top level class then has been E39 Actor
> >> which gives properties which allow the assigning of responsibility
> >> for an intentional activity. It has two subclasses, E21 Person and
> >> E74 Group. These two kinds of being have different behaviour,
> >> therefore properties, therefore classes.
> >>
> >> If we expand the scope (in base or in sci or wherever) to include
> >> animal agency in the first instance, then we must have a way to
> >> monotonically generate this extension (we don't want to just expand
> >> the scope of E39 Actor because then we will end up with rabbits
> >> being responsible for financial crises and murders and all sorts of
> >> nonsense).
> >>
> >> So we want to introduce a sibling class for E39 Actor. Call this
> >> biological agent. Instances can be anything biological. This would
> >> obviously be some sort of a superclass of E21 Person, since all
> >> persons are biological actors as well. It would be a subclass of
> >> biological object since all biological agents must be biological.
> >> (but not all things biological are biological agents)
> >>
> >> Then we would want a general class that subsumes the agency of
> >> purely human actors and biological agents. This would be our top
> >> class. Here we come up with a more general notion of agency. Whereas
> >> E39 Actor was declared in order to account for a 'legal persons
> >> notion' of agency common to Western legal systems etc. (and is
> >> perfectly adequate for the scope of CRM Base), this would be a
> >> broader notion of agency.
> >>
> >> In order to avoid impossible philosophical arguments around self
> >> consciousness, we can give a more externalist scope note / intension
> >> to this class. Agency has to do with those entities which display
> >> self organization and action towards an end from an external
> >> perspective. This way we avoid having to know if the other really
> >> has a self. If it looks like it is acting intentionally and people
> >> document it as such, then so it is.
> >>
> >> This now gives us a super class (and eventually super properties)
> >> for all agents.
> >>
> >> But wait... we need more.
> >>
> >> CRMBase distinguishes between persons and groups. Whereas persons
> >> must have both agency and be individuated corporeal beings, groups
> >> do not. Persons are atomic and irreducible (can't be made up of more
> >> persons, can't be spread over multiple bodies / time zones). Groups
> >> are composed of persons and groups. Groups are inherently
> >> collective.
> >>
> >> If we wish then to have this same distinction reflected into the
> >> biological domain we would need a class for individual biological
> >> agents parallel / sibling to person and a class for collective
> >> biological agents, parallel / sibling to group.
> >>
> >> Doing this one would then need the superclasses to subsume these
> >> divisions. Hence:
> >>
> >> Individual Agent: subclass of Agent, superclass of individual
> >> biological agent
> >>
> >> Collective Agent: subclass of Agent, superclass of collective
> >> biological agent and human group
> >>
> >> This finally allows us to have:
> >>
> >> Individual Biological Agent: subclass of Biological Agent and
> >> Individual Agent: used for individual birds, trees, and other
> >> biological actors
> >>
> >> Collective Biological Agent: subclass of Biological Agent and
> >> Collective Agent: used for flocks, forests and other group
> >> biological actors (unlike human groups, such groups are inherently
> >> corporeal)
> >>
> >> And at that point we might consider renaming our existing classes to
> >> 'human' xxx
> >>
> >> So
> >>
> >> E39 Human Agent: subclass of agent, no real change in intension, the
> >> kind of entity that can take action for which legal responsibility
> >> can be attributed within human cultures societies
> >>
> >> E21 Human Person: no real change in intension but its superclass
> >> becomes individual biological agent and human agent (ie an animal
> >> that can be held legallly responsible for its actions)
> >>
> >> E74 Group no real change in intension, but it gains a super class
> >> Collective Agent so it can be queried together with other agent
> >> groups.
> >>
> >> This analysis does not get into the properties which are, of course,
> >> fundamental but sketches a possible path for creating the structure
> >> necessary to create this extension of scope in such a way that it
> >> would respect the principle of monotonicity in revising the model
> >> while allowing the growth of the model to handle the many use cases
> >> of documented animal agency that fall within CH institution's
> >> documentary scope.
> >>
> >> Hope this is a good starting point for a constructive discussion!
> >>
> >> Best,
> >>
> >> George
> >>
> >> --
> >> ------------------------------------
> >> Dr. Martin Doerr
> >>
> >> Honorary Head of the
> >>
> >> Center for Cultural Informatics
> >>
> >> Information Systems Laboratory
> >> Institute of Computer Science
> >> Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)
> >>
> >> N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,
> >> GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece
> >>
> >> Vox:+30(2810)391625
> >> Email: martin at ics.forth.gr
> >> Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl [1]
> >
> >  --
> >
> > Rob Sanderson
> > Director for Cultural Heritage Metadata
> > Yale University
> >
> > --
> > ------------------------------------
> >  Dr. Martin Doerr
> >
> >  Honorary Head of the
> >
> >  Center for Cultural Informatics
> >
> >  Information Systems Laboratory
> >  Institute of Computer Science
> >  Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)
> >
> >  N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,
> >  GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece
> >
> >  Vox:+30(2810)391625
> >  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr
> >  Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl [1]
> >  _______________________________________________
> > Crm-sig mailing list
> > Crm-sig at ics.forth.gr
> > http://lists.ics.forth.gr/mailman/listinfo/crm-sig [16]
> >
> >  --
> >
> > Rob Sanderson
> > Director for Cultural Heritage Metadata
> > Yale University
> >
> > Links:
> > ------
> > [1]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ics.forth.gr%2Fisl&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838964034138%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=o0ecAyLDntcn6tU3%2B%2F4DgFq50GBAzGW1291wi9QhdwE%3D&reserved=0
> > [2] http://concordia.ca
> > [3]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fid.loc.gov%2Fauthorities%2Fnames%2Fnb2015016669.html&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963964170%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=hdNSl4RqY9oAtWoVxSp3xl9fCc21yLNCKsHF8lEspgs%3D&reserved=0
> > [4]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fid.loc.gov%2Frwo%2Fagents%2Fnb2017006372.html&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963964170%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=0rU8nimUcSQsX0qHQI7H94Hs4w3ssLoOLPIB6fQdwBE%3D&reserved=0
> > [5]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fid.loc.gov%2Fauthorities%2Fnames%2Fno2017122131.html&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963974165%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=QEy5XUWLQMwdpq9prYdI14FzZlkBkHvWmHIUrph%2FeQo%3D&reserved=0
> > [6]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fid.loc.gov%2Frwo%2Fagents%2Fn2013036964.html&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963974165%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=LKk%2BIU6%2B1hjIcYA9lP%2F2cGVSF%2BhegeziH4ifUrOmcz8%3D&reserved=0
> > [7]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.getty.edu%2Fvow%2FULANFullDisplay%3Ffind%3D%26role%3D%26nation%3D%26subjectid%3D500353456&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963984159%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=uq7x%2FB9sMhI%2Ba5WIBaE%2FYIZ1JqKCDROMhsE%2FqTHIl34%3D&reserved=0
> > [8]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fisni.org%2Fisni%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963984159%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=kA1elOx%2BnZrSK8z8AkvhabyJQfHsRUAY%2FpP53dqgvfI%3D&reserved=0
> > [9]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fenvironment%2F2021%2Fsep%2F29%2Fnew-zealand-kea-can-use-touchscreens-but-cant-distinguish-between-real-and-virtual-worlds&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963994155%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=IUWEJ56BvmZ9CUxoqHfOUPH7YMtOJtB4Yq4wTI72LxE%3D&reserved=0
> > [10]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.businessinsider.com%2Fwatch-australias-google-delivery-drone-attacked-by-raven-mid-air-2021-9%3Futm_source%3Dfacebook.com%26utm_campaign%3Dsf-insider-inventions%26utm_medium%3Dsocial&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838963994155%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=u7qMs06srq%2BXVgyFkGkEXSEeUXfY29RpAWp%2Fr8Tw%2BWQ%3D&reserved=0
> > [11]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theatlantic.com%2Fmagazine%2Farchive%2F2019%2F03%2Fwhat-the-crow-knows%2F580726%2F%3Futm_campaign%3Dthe-atlantic%26utm_medium%3Dsocial%26utm_source%3Dfacebook&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838964004154%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=hZSt7ysLRKBeyeETe%2BRmi6QlK1BQB7oLdbSVT7J6x%2FY%3D&reserved=0
> > [12]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fartanddesign%2F2021%2Foct%2F06%2Fanicka-yi-tate-modern-turbine-hall-commission&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838964004154%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=WcnY9gdVpszxHSnK9zefRS%2BtFt0yJJrEJEWny8vUqQ8%3D&reserved=0
> > [13]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fdrive.google.com%2Ffile%2Fd%2F1RtKBvAH1N0G8yaE_io6hU2Z8MTBmH_8-%2Fview%3Fusp%3Dsharing&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838964014148%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=oYtVlYXC2%2BlPBV8yCkJrG6Vnf5%2BtKLxKFmd2GqOy7xA%3D&reserved=0
> > [14]
> >
> https://can01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdraw.io%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cpat.riva%40concordia.ca%7Cc79309f39b794e1f071208d98cfc5da8%7C5569f185d22f4e139850ce5b1abcd2e8%7C0%7C0%7C637695838964024142%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=vFQ2ff%2FsrgoDj9l5wadtrm79xY9tnLjCsYz%2Fzkrmnro%3D&reserved=0
> > [15]
> >
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> > [16]
> >
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