[Crm-sig] and now something completely different - a modelling question

Franco Niccolucci franco.niccolucci at gmail.com
Mon Jan 20 14:51:07 EET 2020

The issue comes from the fact that the said President is not the president of the mountains, lakes, plains etc that form Switzerland; there are two “Swiss Confederation”s here: more precisely, there is Switzerland (the territory) and the Swiss Confederation (the political institution ruling Switzerland). In other words, Ms. Sommaruga is the current President of the Helvetic Confederation, not of the corresponding land, ruled by the Confederation, which is a Space-time volume.

BTW, it is moreover incorrect the statement that the “President of the Swiss Confederation” is a Group; it should be stated that the “Head of State of the Swiss Confederation” is a Group, as according to the Swiss Constitution this function is jointly assigned to the Federal Council, a Group. The President is an individual (a Person) who chairs the Council for one year as a primus inter pares.	

In sum, there are two different concepts associated with a country:

a) the territory, possibly variable in time, which is rightfully modelled as a Space-time volume

b) the state, which depends on the political and legislative structure and possibly on the international recognition; you choose how to model it, perhaps as a Group? It has a beginning and an end. E.g. France roughly corresponds in time to the same territory but the state of France has been different: monarchy, then republic, then empire, then monarchy and finally republic again; such changes had no direct relationship with the changes of the corresponding territory. Conversely, there may be changes in the territory with no change in the state, for example the Kingdom of Italy before and after each World War, same state, king and Constitution but different territory. In 1946 Italy became a Republic, political change but same territory.

Such difference is also evidenced by different names: Switzerland versus Confoederatio Helvetica, Italy versus Italian Republic etc.

There is an obvious relationship between b) and a). But they are not the same: if a) changes b) may remain the same and viceversa.

A President/King/citizen is president/etc. of b), not of a).

Examples where currently only one of a)/b) exists:
. the Sovereign Military Order of Malte (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta) is recognized by 107 states so it exists as a state but has no territory on which it exerts its power. To the best of my knowledge this is a unique case.
- the Republic of North Cyprus has a territory on which it exerts its control but is not internationally recognized (except by Turkey) so does not exist as a state.


Prof. Franco Niccolucci
Director, VAST-LAB
PIN - U. of Florence
Scientific Coordinator

ACM Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH) 

Piazza Ciardi 25
59100 Prato, Italy

> Il giorno 20 gen 2020, alle ore 12:23, Christian-Emil Smith Ore <c.e.s.ore at iln.uio.no> ha scritto:
> Dear all
> As an example of an instance of  E24 Group one find "The President of the Swiss Confederation" which is ok. How should one link this instance to the Swiss Confederation​ which is modelled as a instance of E4 Period?
> Best
> Christian-Emil
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