[Crm-sig] ISSUE: Scope note of E77 Persistent Item

Martin Doerr martin at ics.forth.gr
Mon Oct 7 16:33:24 EEST 2019

Dear All,

This  scope note violates CRM principles: Of course E77 must have clear 
cut identity criteria. The question is only, how subclasses will refine 

The fact that a particular constellation of matter can be regarded to be 
instance of different classes, which would extend the identity of the 
respective constellation in different ways in time and space, is a 
general methodological concern, and not a decision of the observer. The 
documentalist has to chose which of these describe the intended form of 
continuity correctly for the intended reasoning.
I propose to revise.

      E77 Persistent Item

Subclass of: E1 <#_E1_CRM_Entity> CRM Entity

Superclass of: E39 <#_E39_Actor> Actor

         E70 <#_E70_Thing> Thing

Scope note: This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, 
sometimes known as “endurants” in philosophy.

  They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their 
existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. 
Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, 
animals or things, or conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, 
products of the imagination or common names.

The criteria that determine the identity of an item are often difficult 
to establish -; the decision depends largely on the judgement of the 
observer. For example, a building is regarded as no longer existing if 
it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. 
On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes 
during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, 
yet preserve their identity by other criteria. Similarly, inanimate 
objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. The class E77 
Persistent Item does not take any position [CSO1] about the nature of 
the applicable identity criteria and if actual knowledge about identity 
of an instance of this class exists. There may be cases, where the 
identity of an instance of E77 Persistent Item is not decidable by a 
certain state of knowledge.

The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope the E77 
Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and 
acts, and descriptive properties.


§ Leonard da Vinci (Strano, 1953)

§ Stonehenge (Richards, 2005)

§ the hole in the ozone layer (Hufford and Horwitz, 2005)

§ the First Law of Thermodynamics (Craig and Gislason, 2002)

§ the Bermuda Triangle (Dolan, 2005)

In First Order Logic:

E77(x) ⊃ E1(x)


[CSO1] <#_msoanchor_1>Can a class take a position, consider to 
reformulate the sentence.

  Dr. Martin Doerr
  Honorary Head of the
  Center for Cultural Informatics
  Information Systems Laboratory
  Institute of Computer Science
  Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)
  N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,
  GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece
  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr
  Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl

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