[Crm-sig] ISSUE 295 homework

Franco Niccolucci franco.niccolucci at gmail.com
Thu Jan 11 12:03:13 EET 2018


Thanks Achille. 

That sentence about 0s and 1s is there probably because people, and especially humanists like dictionary editors, don’t understand the nature of numbers. 

The number “two” is the number two, not two cows, two oranges or two humans. Its definition does not need any physical representation and even abstracts from any conceptual way of representing it, i.e. with a binary system (0s and 1s) or sexagesimal one. Actually in most cases, and in most people’s minds, two is 1 and 2, not 0 and 1, which comes in because the computer representation uses a flip-flop circuit.

This is very clear from Martin’s distinction quoted in some previous email between Maxwells’ equations and the way they are formally represented, and then printed in a book. So there are three levels: the concept, the conceptual representation, and its physical footprint. Of these, two are described by the CRM, the intermediate one being probably considered as irrelevant.

Franco


Prof. Franco Niccolucci
Director, VAST-LAB
PIN - U. of Florence
Scientific Coordinator
ARIADNE - PARTHENOS

Piazza Ciardi 25
59100 Prato, Italy


> Il giorno 11 gen 2018, alle ore 10:06, Achille Felicetti <achille.felicetti at pin.unifi.it> ha scritto:
> 
> Dear Franco,
> 
>> Il giorno 10 gen 2018, alle ore 21:52, Franco Niccolucci <franco.niccolucci at gmail.com> ha scritto:
>> 
>> Quoting Martin below
>> 
>> [By Digital Collections] ... we do not mean the servers as a whole, but only the material signal encoding on the media.
>> 
>> This statement is an oxymoron. Whatever material thing cannot be digital, not even “signals”: according to my Oxford Dictionary, digital means "expressed as a series of the digits 0 and 1". In a collection, whatever it is, you just get more 0’s and 1’s but no material thing.
> 
> For completeness it should also be noted that the Oxford Dictionary goes on to explain that the 0 and 1 digits are: “typically represented by values of a physical quantity such as voltage or magnetic polarization”, which seems, in some way, to refer to some kind of “physicality” still present “in the background” :-)
> 
> A.
> 
>> 
>> Thanasis is right as regards deprecating the use of the expression “Digital Collections”. This term does not mean a material thing also for the authors of the Oxford Dictionary, besides the many readers he mentions that include myself.
>> 
>> I may agree that the “encoding on the media” consists in (perhaps temporary and reversible) alterations of the media itself, possibly with only two different states eg black/white, positive/negative, etc, to encode the content according to a predefined code; and recorded there magnetically, optically or carved (the Code of Hammurabi kept at the Louvre, unfortunately not with a binary code); in any case altering (some property of) the media itself. It could also be Martin Doerr’s voice, analogically recorded on vinyl  on 10/01/2018 from 21:48 to 22:30 while reading the Code of Hammurabi in Akkadian (with a nice voice but with a terrible German accent, unfortunately) .
>> 
>> So, thumbs down for "digital collections”.
>> 
>> Franco
>> 
>> 
>> Prof. Franco Niccolucci
>> Director, VAST-LAB
>> PIN - U. of Florence
>> Scientific Coordinator
>> ARIADNE - PARTHENOS
>> 
>> Piazza Ciardi 25
>> 59100 Prato, Italy
>> 
>> 
>>> Il giorno 10 gen 2018, alle ore 21:02, Martin Doerr <martin at ics.forth.gr> ha scritto:
>>> 
>>> Dear Thanasi,
>>> 
>>> On 1/10/2018 1:30 PM, Athanasios Velios wrote:
>>>> Shouldn't this:
>>>> 
>>>> §  The Digital Collections of the Munich DigitiZation Center (MDZ) accessible via https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/ at least in January 2018.
>>>> 
>>>> be instead:
>>>> 
>>>> §  The group of servers (hardware) holding the Digital Collections of the Munich DigitiZation Center (MDZ) accessible via https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/ at least in January 2018.
>>>> 
>>>> The term "Digital Collections" will not necessarily mean a physical thing for many readers.
>>> Actually we do not mean the servers as a whole, but only the material signal encoding on the media. This interpretation gives correct answers that the collection can be destroyed, and is a "holding" in the hands of the maintainers, i.e., physically kept, and that it can change like a physical thing loosing its previous form.
>>> The immaterial item would not change, reside on multiple carriers. An update would create a new derivative, i.e., another thing, not affecting other copies around.
>>> The material interpretation is problematic if the content is moved around servers.
>>> 
>>> Another interpretation is that of a "volatile dataset" we at FORTH used in the PARTHENOS project, which uses the logical condition that there is only one representative version of the data object at any point in time, regardless carrier. It updates like a material object. This may in general create a problem, if the authority identifying the correct representative version not clear. I tried to be neutral to this dilemma by using the URL, which points to the physical "location", under which the representative version will appear, and makes the storage system an internal issue of the maintainer.
>>> 
>>> Consider a "move" of the database to another storage system and a simultaneous update. Then, formally, neither the carrier nor the content is the same, but it is still the same "digital library".
>>> 
>>> Note, that if I make a copy of a digital library, I get an immaterial object, which will not be representative after the first change to the original, without me doing anything. Hence, the digital library does not behave like an Information Object in the sense of the CRM.
>>> 
>>> All the best,
>>> 
>>> Martin
>>>> 
>>>> All the best,
>>>> 
>>>> Thanasis
>>>> 
>>>> On 04/01/18 17:39, Martin Doerr wrote:
>>>>> Dear All,
>>>>> 
>>>>> Here my proposals:
>>>>> 
>>>>> 
>>>>>   "ISSUE 295
>>>>> 
>>>>> Following Martin’s proposal to remove class E84 since it does not satisfy the requirements proposed on issue 340, the sig proposed the examples of material carrier of a digital object to be moved to E24 of an E25 digital feature and possibly to E78 οr put example for E78 of Server holding Digital Asset Management.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Finally, the sig asked Martin to make an example. The issue will be complete with examples. It is decided to be created a new issue for covering the discussion aboutE84 staying or going"
>>>>> 
>>>>> *I propose:
>>>>> 
>>>>> Delete:*
>>>>> 
>>>>> 
>>>>>     E84 Information Carrier
>>>>> 
>>>>> Subclass of:E22 <#_E22_Man-Made_Object> Man-Made Object
>>>>> 
>>>>> Scope note:This class comprises all instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are explicitly designed to act as persistent physical carriers for instances of E73 Information Object.
>>>>> 
>>>>> An E84 Information Carrier may or may not contain information, e.g., a diskette. Note that any E18 Physical Thing may carry information, such as an E34 Inscription. However, unless it was specifically designed for this purpose, it is not an Information Carrier. Therefore the property /P128 carries (is carried by)/ applies to E18 Physical Thing in general.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Examples:
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Rosetta Stone
>>>>> 
>>>>> §my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM
>>>>> 
>>>>> In First Order Logic:
>>>>> 
>>>>> E84(x) ⊃E22(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> *New examples in:*
>>>>> 
>>>>> *E78 Curated Holding***
>>>>> 
>>>>> Subclass of: E24 <#_E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing> Physical Man-Made Thing
>>>>> 
>>>>> Scope note:This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained (“curated” and “preserved,” in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan.Typical instances of curated holdings are museum collections, archives, library holdings and digital libraries. A digital library is regarded as an instance of E18 Physical Thing because it requires keeping physical carriers of the electronic content.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Items may be added or removed from an E78 Curated Holding in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Curated Holding often referred to with the name of the E78 Curated Holding (e.g. “The Wallace Collection decided…”).
>>>>> 
>>>>> Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Curated Holding. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Examples:
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the John Clayton Herbarium
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Wallace Collection
>>>>> 
>>>>> §Mikael Heggelund Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Trondheim, Norway
>>>>> 
>>>>> §The Digital Collections of the Munich DigitiZation Center (MDZ) accessible via https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/ at least in January 2018.
>>>>> 
>>>>> In First Order Logic:
>>>>> 
>>>>> E78(x) ⊃E24(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> *E24 Physical Man-Made **Thing***
>>>>> 
>>>>> Subclass of:E18 <#_E18_Physical_Thing> Physical Thing
>>>>> 
>>>>> E71 <#_E71_Man-Made_Thing>Man-Made Thing
>>>>> 
>>>>> Superclass of: E22 <#_E22_Man-Made_Object>Man-Made Object
>>>>> 
>>>>> E25 <#_E25_Man-Made_Feature>Man-Made Feature
>>>>> 
>>>>> E78 <#_E78_Collection>Collection
>>>>> 
>>>>> Scope Note:This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.
>>>>> 
>>>>> This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Examples:
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Channel Tunnel (E25)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Rosetta Stone (E22)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment (E22)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM (E22)
>>>>> 
>>>>> §my empty DVD disk (E22)
>>>>> 
>>>>> In First Order Logic:
>>>>> 
>>>>> E24(x) ⊃E18(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> E24(x) ⊃E71(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> Properties:
>>>>> 
>>>>> P62 <#_P62_depicts_%28is_depicted%20by%29> depicts (is depicted by): E1 <#_E1_CRM_Entity> CRM Entity
>>>>> 
>>>>> (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 <#_E55_Type> Type)
>>>>> 
>>>>> P65 <#_P65_shows_visual_item%20%28is%20shown%20by%29> shows visual item (is shown by): E36 <#_E36_Visual_Item> Visual Item
>>>>> 
>>>>> 
>>>>> *Scope Note extension:**
>>>>> *
>>>>> 
>>>>> *E25 Man-Made Feature***
>>>>> 
>>>>> Subclass of:E24 <#_E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing> Physical Man-Made Thing
>>>>> 
>>>>> E26 <#_E26_Physical_Feature>Physical Feature
>>>>> 
>>>>> Scope Note:This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc. In particular it includes the information encoding features on mechanical or digital carriers.
>>>>> 
>>>>> No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.
>>>>> 
>>>>> Examples:
>>>>> 
>>>>> §the Manchester Ship Canal
>>>>> 
>>>>> §Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
>>>>> 
>>>>> §The laser-readable “pits” engraved June 2014 in my CD-R, copying songs of Edith Piaf’s.
>>>>> 
>>>>> §The carved letters on the Rosetta Stone
>>>>> 
>>>>> In First Order Logic:
>>>>> 
>>>>> E25(x) ⊃E26(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> E25(x) ⊃E24(x)
>>>>> 
>>>>> -- 
>>>>> --------------------------------------------------------------
>>>>> Dr. Martin Doerr              |  Vox:+30(2810)391625        |
>>>>> Research Director             |  Fax:+30(2810)391638        |
>>>>>                               |  Email:martin at ics.forth.gr  |
>>>>>                                                             |
>>>>>               Center for Cultural Informatics               |
>>>>>               Information Systems Laboratory                |
>>>>>                Institute of Computer Science                |
>>>>>   Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   |
>>>>>                                                             |
>>>>>               N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,             |
>>>>>                GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece               |
>>>>>                                                             |
>>>>>             Web-site:http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl            |
>>>>> --------------------------------------------------------------
>>>>> 
>>>>> 
>>>>> 
>>>>> _______________________________________________
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>>>>> 
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>>> 
>>> -- 
>>> --------------------------------------------------------------
>>> Dr. Martin Doerr              |  Vox:+30(2810)391625        |
>>> Research Director             |  Fax:+30(2810)391638        |
>>>                             |  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr |
>>>                                                           |
>>>             Center for Cultural Informatics               |
>>>             Information Systems Laboratory                |
>>>              Institute of Computer Science                |
>>> Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   |
>>>                                                           |
>>>             N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,             |
>>>              GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece               |
>>>                                                           |
>>>           Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl           |
>>> --------------------------------------------------------------
>>> 
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> Crm-sig mailing list
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>> 
>> 
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