[Crm-sig] HomeWork Issue 325

martin martin at ics.forth.gr
Tue Mar 14 21:50:41 EET 2017


Dear All,

Here my and Oeyvind's proposal:

"

An important class of E90 Symbolic Objects consists of arrangements of 
instances of a finite set of symbols, such as the character types of an 
alphabet, following rules of arrangement that make the relative order of 
the symbols unambiguous, such as writing symbols regularly spaced, in 
regularly spaced lines, aggregated into paragraphs etc. Most texts, but 
also diagrams such as metro maps fall under this category, because they 
represent stations and their connections in a way only loosely related 
to their actual geometry. The rules for the arrangements of symbols 
quantify relative positions so that they can unambiguously be 
interpreted as logical structures or grammars. For instance, inter-word 
spaces are sufficiently larger than inter-character spaces not to 
confuse them. We denote these objects as “formal symbol structures”. 
Common to them is the property that there is a minimal resolution under 
which they are still “readable”, i.e. under which the used kinds of 
symbols can be distinguished and the logical role of their relative 
positions unambiguously be interpreted. This even holds for melodies 
expressed in some musical key. If the digitization of a physical carrier 
of such a formal symbol structure is carried out in the necessary 
resolution and coverage, the complete symbolic content of the physical 
carrier will also be readable in a representation of the reproducing 
digital object, as well known from operating paper scanners. Then, the 
digital object will incorporate (/P165 incorporates/) the symbolic 
object on the physical carrier.

Ambiguity about this property may, for instance, arise if some 
characters are badly readable on the original. For practical reasons, we 
recommend not to regard such minor shortcomings of the original as a 
reason to question the /P165 incorporates/ relation of the digital 
representation, as long as the overall sense (or score) is recognizable, 
in particular, if the intended meaning can be guessed equally well from 
the original as from the digital representation. The same holds for 
minor flaws in the digital representation itself.

In contrast, for symbolic objects in a non-discrete form, such as 
paintings, there is no clear minimal resolution and the actual color 
reflection behavior cannot be reproduced digitally with current means. 
As long as this is the case, the digitized image cannot be said to 
incorporate the original, it only “/P138 represents/” it. (For audio 
recordings, there is no equivalent to/P138 represents/, and the more 
general /P67 refers to/ should be employed). Actually, the symbolic 
object a physical object carries is not uniquely defined by the physical 
carrier but depends on the type of the symbolic object defined in a 
model, which in turn serves a purpose of representation. If, for 
instance, the original is a manuscript, a digitized image may 
incorporate its text, which is instantiated and defined as a symbolic 
object of type “character sequence” in an information system. However 
other research-relevant optical features, which belong to richer 
symbolic properties of the manuscript surface, such as colors, may not 
be resolved by the image. This richer definition of a symbolic object 
carried by the physical object would not be incorporated in the 
digitized image. In other words, the type of the symbolic object that is 
described to be carried by the physical object determines the features 
under consideration and hence allows for deciding if the digitized image 
has sufficient qualities to incorporate it. There is however still no 
good typology of symbolic objects with respect to the relevant 
representational feature types.

Best,

martin

-- 

--------------------------------------------------------------
  Dr. Martin Doerr              |  Vox:+30(2810)391625        |
  Research Director             |  Fax:+30(2810)391638        |
                                |  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr |
                                                              |
                Center for Cultural Informatics               |
                Information Systems Laboratory                |
                 Institute of Computer Science                |
    Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   |
                                                              |
                N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,             |
                 GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece               |
                                                              |
              Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl           |
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