[Crm-sig] Homework for Issue 287, FAQ on Modelling States of Prints using FRBRoo

Pierre Choffé choffepierre at gmail.com
Sun Jul 31 20:40:28 EEST 2016

Hi Pat, hello everyone,

Starting from the initial sketch or drawing, and ending with the final
prints, what would you think of this FRBRoo process :

(1) Drawing
The initial sketch or drawing may be a piece of art in itself, kept in a
museum, we could describe its creation with the usual F28 Expression
Creation activity, creating an F22 Self-Contained Expression which realises
an F14 Individual Work. The same F28 Expression Creation *r18 created* an
F4 Manifestation Singleton which is the object (the drawing).

(2) Production of the plate
This drawing will be used to produce a plate. To make it short, we could
use an E12 Production activity which would have *p16 used a specific object*
F4 Manifestation Singleton (the drawing, F4 is a subclass of E24 Physical
Man-Made Thing) and *p31 produced* an E22 Man-Made Object, the plate.
If we consider this plate (and its possible modifications during the
process) as expressions of a work, we can model the creation process with
F28-F22-F14 creating an F4 (a plate), and F28 *p16 used a specific object *F4
(the drawing).
Should the plate be modified, the process is repeated with F28-F22-F14
creating an F4 (a new plate), and F28 *p16 used a specific object *F4 (the
precedent plate).
F28 is a subclass of E65 Creation, but also of E12 Production which itself
is a subclass of E11 Modification.
The various F22 Self-Contained Expression resulting from these multiple
production/modification activities are various forms that the same work
takes each time it is realised, so they can be grouped inside an F15
Complex Work which they "realise" : F15 *r3 is realised in* F22.

(3) Test prints
The first print(s) are generally not part of a publication process, they
are proofs.They can be modelled via an E12 Production activity which would
have *p16 used a specific object *F4 Manifestation Singleton (the plate)
and *p31 produced* one or more E22 Man-Made Object, the test print(s).
If we want to use F28 Expression Creation here, since F4s are supposed to
be unique, we need to use as many F38, producing as many F22 as there are
F4s, which makes sense as the "épreuves d'artiste" have a unique number.

(4) Publication
The 'industrial' process of publication is the usual one in FRBRoo, F30
Publication Event creating an F24 Publication Expression which realises an
F19 Publication Work. The F32 Carrier Production Event *p16 used specific
object* F4 Manifestation Singleton (the plate) and *p31 produced* an F5
The F24 Publication Expression *r6i is carried by* the F5 Item and *r27i
was used as source material by* the F32 Carrier Production Event.

There may be complex printing processes (e.g. various prints for the
different colours of the same print), but this would be a variant of the

All the best,

2016-07-31 18:06 GMT+02:00 Pat Riva <pat.riva at concordia.ca>:

> Hello everyone,
> Here is my draft of a FAQ for issue 287. The text has benefitted from
> input from Marie-Chantal L'Ecuyer-Coelho, chair of the ARLIS/NA Cataloguing
> Committee.
> I have attached the text as a file, and also copy it here below.
> FAQ on Modelling States of Prints using FRBRoo
> Definition of Print (visual works) from the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
> (AAT):
> “Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such
> as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes.”
> Thus a print is a visual work, created through a wide range of techniques
> that involve making an ink impression on paper or other material (etc.)
> based on a matrix or plate which creates the image. Many techniques for
> preparing the matrix or plates and striking the prints exist.
> The plates are usually intended to be used multiple times to produce
> multiple, essentially identical, copies of the print. This fits with the
> definition of an industrial process. In FRBRoo this concept applies to any
> system of production that can create objects in a series, including
> small-scale production processes; it is not restricted to large factory
> production.
> In the simple case, the modelling of prints using FRBRoo is exactly
> parallel to the creation of any other F3 Manifestation Product Type:
> F32 Carrier Production event R26 produced things of type F3 Manifestation
> Product Type.
> The use of a specific plate (E24 Physical Man-Made Thing) can be modelled
> with the addition of P16 used specific object. The creator is modelled with
> an E39 Actor linked to the F27 Work Conception and to the F28 Expression
> Creation, producing an F22 Self-contained Expression, and possibly a
> different E39 Actor linked to the actual printing via F32 Carrier
> Production Event R28 produced F54 Utilized Information Carrier. The
> individual prints are instances of F5 Item.
> At various stages during the production of the matrix or plate, prints
> (proofs) may be taken by the printmaker to ascertain the evolution of the
> image. (This is because it can be difficult to gauge the printed result
> merely from viewing the matrix.) In the course of the print run, or prior
> to starting a new print run which reuses the same physical plate,
> alterations may be deliberately introduced, either by the original creator
> or by someone else, on the plate (adding details or modifying part of the
> image) which produces variants or states of the print. Each proof, or set
> of proofs, documenting an intentional alteration of the matrix or plate
> defines a distinct state. This is a deliberate process, not merely the
> normal wear of the plate through repeated use (which might result in later
> copies being less crisp, for instance, than those produced at the beginning
> of the print run).
> In the Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Graphic materials)
> (DCRM(G)), a “state” is defined as follows:
> “In graphic usage, an impression or set of identical impressions produced
> from a plate or other matrix at a distinct, visually identifiable stage in
> the life of that matrix due to intentional changes to the matrix, and often
> marking a point in its artistic development (such as “etched state” or a
> “state after letters”).”
> In FRBRoo the process of creating a state can be modelled using an E39
> Actor linked to E11 Modification P31 has modified E24 Physical Man-Made
> Thing (the plate). The instance of E39 Actor may or may not be the same as
> the one responsible for the original work creation, etc. This modification
> event happened at a given time, then the production of F3 Manifestation
> Product Type after this time is a new instance of F3, so the F5 Items
> produced using the modified plate are items of this later manifestation,
> which embodies a new expression of the F1 Work, derived from the previous
> F22 Self-contained expression.
> This is analogous to the situation of the production of books by
> hand-press printing. Once the type was composed and the printing process
> started, states within that impression could be obtained when more or less
> minor changes were made to the type in the course of printing. Some of
> these variations can be significant and result in variant manifestations,
> or even variant expressions.
> (For more details on states of early printed books see: Jonsson, Gunilla.
> Cataloguing of hand press materials and the concept of Expression in FRBR.
> In: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) : hype or
> cure-all? Patrick Le Boeuf (editor). Haworth Information Press, 2005,
> pp.77-86). ​
> Sorry I will not be at the meeting next week in Heraklion, greetings to
> everyone.
> Pat
> Pat Riva
> Associate University Librarian, Collection Services
> Concordia University
> Vanier Library (VL-301-61)
> 7141 Sherbrooke Street West
> Montreal, QC H4B 1R6
> Canada
> +1-514-848-2424 ext. 5255
> pat.riva at concordia.ca
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