[Crm-sig] Some notes on Issue 268 and 269 coins, notes, marks and industrial design

Christian-Emil Smith Ore c.e.s.ore at iln.uio.no
Fri Feb 6 13:24:46 EET 2015

Some notes on Issue 268 and 269
These two issues are about mass produced objects and how to model them in a CRM and FRBRoo setting.
The discussion started with coins, bank notes and stamps. The intended function of objects of all three categories is to be value symbols. On the other hand, they can be viewed as mass produced object where the design, the designer and motif can be of interest for scholars in history, art history and cultural studies, (e.g German notgeld from 1920ies http://notgeld.meulie.net/) .  The can also be kept in museums, libraries and archives.  This can be extended to mass produced object for example design by famous persons like Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, etc.  The design of such object are protected through legislation for industrial design (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_design) The PIXAR lamp logo was taken from a Norwegian lamp producer and resulted in a law suit (http://glamox.com/upload/2012/02/14/_l1-360x240.png). 

To my understanding industrial design and mass produced objects are in the scope of CRM/FRBRoo. CRM is not developed to tackle the complexity and FRBRoo is perhaps too focused on bibliographical data.  In these notes (I apologies for typos and language errors) I look a little into the problem complex. My conclusion is that FRBRoo can almost model documentation about design and mass produced object. F3 Manifestation Product Type is the most problematic. A solution can be to adjust FRBRoo or make a very small extenstion



CIDOC-CRM does not model intellectual objects in a detail. Still it is possible to use the type system model artefacts produced in large numbers, for example coins by simply stating that a coin has a given type in a predefined numismatic nomenclature, that is, a coin catalogue. 
It is possible in CRM to model the process of defining types. For example CIDOC-CRM can be used to model the species definition in natural history museums, see  for example http://www.edd.uio.no/nedlasting/cidoc/tdwg2005_Lampe_Ore_final.pdf

****************** Industrial (mass) production ****************
CRM can also be used to model a production process. The class E12 Production can be given a type describing both the process and the kind of products. 

In an email 22.11.2014 Maria Theodoridou refers to an extension of CRM:

E12 Production. PC1 produced things of type: E55 Type
E22 Man-Made Object. PC2 is example of: E55 Type
Both PC1 and PC2 are subproperties of P2 has type

Maria writes that the idea is that the property PC2 is similar to R7 and PC1 is similar to R26 respectively in FRBRoo.

Definition in  FRBRoo:

F3 Manifestation Product Type is a sub class of E55 Type

F5 Item. R7 is example of  F3 Manifestation Product Type.
R7 is a subproperty of  E1 CRM Entity. P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type

E32 Carrier Production Event. R26 produced things of type F3 Manifestation Product Type
R26 is a subproperty of E12 Production. P108 has produced: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. P2 has type: E55 Type

(Digression:   The '.1'- properties having properties as domain and E55 Type as range. It can be seen as a shorthand for defining sub properties of a basic property. The '.1'-properies  are not sub properties of any standard property since a property is not a an instance of  E1 CRM Entity. There is no CRM class E??? Property. All sub properties of for example  "E12 Production. P108 has produced: E24 Physical Man-MadeThing"  must have  domain  E12 Production or a subclass of E12, similar for the range. At least according to my understanding of the intention behind '.1'-properties the super property of R26 is not well defined. This is not a part of the actual issues, but one may consider to revise the definition of R26 and to make it a sub property of P2.)

If one introduces PC1 and PC2 in CRM and makes R26 into a sub property of P2 then R7 and R26 can be sub properties of PC2 and PC1 respectively.

************* The intellectual process connected to mass production ***********

There are many museums having departments and exhibitions focusing on design. The objects can typically be exemplars of mass produced objects like furniture, plates, glasses, clothing etc. The objects are examples of the design and may not have special interest as unique artefacts. The focus is on the design, designers, material and cultural context and influence. The documentation is not unlike what one may find in a good FRBR based library catalogue. 

CIDOC-CRM is not sufficiently developed to model this. FRBRoo is, but has a library/bibliographical point of view? This is true and not true. For example in the scope note for F1 Work there are three examples, etching, three dimensional sculpture and a play:

Abstract content of Giovanni Battista Piranesi's 'Carcere XVI: the pier with chains: 1st state' (F14)

'La Porte de l'Enfer' by Auguste Rodin conceived between 1880 and 1917 (F15) 

'Hamlet' by William Shakespeare (F15)

These three examples could have been used throughout the definition of FRBRoo down to the physical item/manifestation singleton level. Unfortunately the sculpture disappears. In FRBRoo the unique materialization of 'La Porte de l'Enfer' can be a manifestation singleton like a medieval manuscript on parchment is.  

Consider mass produced copies of a Rodin statue. The idea behind these can be modelled as a work being a member of a complex work also containing the original work by Rodin. This is similar to a printed comic version of Hamlet and the original play. In FRBRoo we can model the process behind the mass production of Rodin copies to a large degree.
F3 Manifestation Product Type is problematic, see the scope notes at the end of this text. The first paragraph of F3 Manifestation Product Type is ok. The second is very specific for texts publication. There is an author, a publisher, publication, hardcover, paperback. Mass produced items like statuettes are clearly out of the scope of F3 Manifestation Product Type. 

The scope note of F24 Publication expression is focused on signs and the wording does not seem to include things like mas produced statuettes. However, the third example in the scope note describes the publication expression for a two dvd box, so the Rodin copy statuettes should be in scope.

In general mass produced objects (of artistic value) can be launched at a given date. They are not published. So the wording in FRBRoo does not fit. 


F3 Manifestation Product Type 
This class comprises the definitions of publication products.
An instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type is the "species", and all copies of a given object are "specimens" of it. An instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type defines all of the features or traits that instances of F5 Item normally display in order that they may be recognised as copies of a particular publication. However, due to production problems or subsequent events, one or more instances of F5 Item may not exhibit all these features or traits; yet such instances still retain their relationship to the same instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type.
The features that characterise a given instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type include: one instance of F24 Publication Expression, containing one or more than one instance of F2 Expression, reflecting the authors' content of the manifestation and all additional input by the publisher; and the appropriate types of physical features for that form of the object. For example, hardcover and paperback are two distinct publications (i.e. two distinct instances of F3 Manifestation Product Type) even though authorial and editorial content are otherwise identical in both publications. The activity of cataloguing aims at the most accurate listing of features or traits of an instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type that are sufficient to distinguish it from another instance of F3 Manifestation Product Type. 

F24 Publication Expression
This class comprises complete sets of signs present in publications, reflecting publishers' final decisions as to both selection of content and layout of the publications. Frequently the creation of a Publication Expression includes both adding graphical form and fonts to Expressions consisting of words alone and selecting illustrations and other content. As such, an instance of Publication Expression incorporates all Expressions combined for the resulting final form of rendering, whether visual, audio or tactile. An instance of Publication Expression is one entity regardless of the number of independent Expressions published within it, as long as it represents one unit of release. The published third party content can be associated via the property P165 incorporates (is incorporated in).

Third example
The overall content of the DVD entitled 'The Aviator (2-Disc Full Screen Edition)', released in 2004: Martin Scorsese's movie itself; layout of the box and the two DVDs contained in the box; pictures on the DVDs themselves; English, Spanish, and French subtitles; English and French audio tracks; and bonuses: commentaries by director Martin Scorsese, editor Thelma Schoonmaker, and producer Michael Mann; a deleted scene ('Howard Tells Ava About His Car Accident'); and featurettes 'A Life Without Limits: The Making of The Aviator'; 'The Role of Howard Hughes in Aviation History'; 'Modern Marvels: Howard Hughes, A Documentary by the History Channel'; 'The Visual Effects of The Aviator'; 'The Affliction of Howard Hughes: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder'; 'The Age of Glamour: The Hair And Makeup of The Aviator'; 'Costuming The Aviator: The Work of Sandy Powell'; 'Constructing The Aviator: The Work of Dante Ferretti'; 'An evening with Leonardo DiCaprio and Alan Alda'; 'OCD Panel Discussion With Leonardo DiCaprio, Martin Scorsese, and Howard Hughes' Widow Terry Moore'; 'Still Gallery'; 'Scoring The Aviator: The Work Of Howard Shore'; and 'The Wainwright Family - Loudon, Rufus and Martha'

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