[Crm-sig] Issue:P65 - P138-P67 guidelines

martin martin at ics.forth.gr
Tue Nov 13 19:31:45 EET 2012

Dear All,

WRT the issue "P65 - P138-P67 guidelines", we were in the last meeting 
confronted with the question
how to represent the relation between an analogue object and its 

Here my opinion:

The FRBRoo property "R14 incorporates"appears to assume that the content 
of the incorporated Expression
can be recovered from the incorporating Expression. Applying that to the 
digitization of a painting, we come
to the conclusion that neither one incorporates the other. Rather, the 
digitized painting is an approximation,
normally in the RGB channels, of the original under standardized (if at 
all) daylight conditions. The quality of
the approximation depends on resolution, lighting, color channels and 
color calibration.
So, any digitization has a different relationship to the original.
  The only common relation appears to be the intention to represent as 
good as
possible the original, and details are parameters of the digitization 
As such "Image X. is digitization of: Painting Y" can be seen as a kind 
of "P138 represents".
If we take the true reflectance properties of the analogue original as 
an instance of E36 Visual Item, the
digitized image can also be regarded as a derivative, i.e., the "is 
digitization of" as a kind of " R2 is derivative of (has derivative)".

In case of "discrete information objects" as we describe in: 
http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.0385, a digitized image of
adequate resolution, such as of a newspaper page, indeed "incorporates" 
the original analogue representation of the Information Object, as its 
intended features are completely recognizable on the digital image.

Hence, the decision, if a digital image incorporates an analogue 
resource depends on the adequacy of the process and the type of the 
original, and therefore is additional knowledge that cannot be inferred 
from the fact of being
product of a digitization process only. However, being product of a 
digitization process appears to always allow for inferring that the 
digital represents and is derivative of the original.

Similarly, the degree to which we can objectively decide if a digital 
image can stand for *being* a visual item
shown by a physical man-made thing : "P65 shows visual item", depends on 
the same arguments as the "incorporates" property: In case the digital 
"incorporates" the analogue, the digital can be inferred to be a
visual item shown by  (P65B) a physical thing, for instance an 
inscription text.

CRM-SIG however may decide for practical reasons that the use of the 
property P65 extends to regard any digitization product as *being **a 
visual item P65B shown by....
*In that case, the scope note of P65 could be extended like that:

"This property documents an E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 
Physical Man-Made Thing or an adequate  visual approximation of it."



  Dr. Martin Doerr              |  Vox:+30(2810)391625        |
  Research Director             |  Fax:+30(2810)391638        |
                                |  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr |
                Center for Cultural Informatics               |
                Information Systems Laboratory                |
                 Institute of Computer Science                |
    Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   |
                N.Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,             |
                 GR70013 Heraklion,Crete,Greece               |
              Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl           |

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