[crm-sig] Necessary links

martin martin at ics.forth.gr
Tue Oct 1 14:38:38 EEST 2002

Dear All,

I propose, in order to clarify fully the ontological meaning of CRM properties wrt cardinality
constraints, to introduce the following:

a) "necessary" : in reality every domain instance has at least one such link.
b) "dependent" : in reality every range instance has at least one such link.
    (The range  instance "depends" in its existence on at least one domain instance)

Both terms are well introduced in computer science.

The backward link reads "necessary" as "dependent" and vice-versa.

Those constraints do not mean, that we know or ever should know the respective properties.
The constraints are ontological. An implementation would be oriented on epistemological
constraints, i.e. what can be learned. This is why I repeat the phrase "in reality".

To which degree a Condition State must exist or not without people having conceived it, might be debatable.
I assumed, that an Object does not always come with some may be non-thought-of Condition State.

All links to Dimension must express, that a Dimension is specific to the related: P83, P84 must be 1:something,
because P43 is 1:many, dependent. Necessarily, P83, P84 must be 1:1, dependent, and not "many:1".

Hence we read:

many:many = (0,n):(0,n)
many:many, necessary = (1,n):(0,n)
many:many, dependent = (0,n):(1,n)
many:many, necessary, dependent = (1,n):(1,n)

many:1 = (0,1):(0,n)
many:1, necessary = (1):(0,n)
many:1, dependent = (0,1):(1,n)
many:1, necessary, dependent = (1):(1,n)

1:many = (0,n):(0,1)
1:many, necessary = (1,n):(0,1)
1:many, dependent = (0,n):(1)
1:many, necessary, dependent = (1,n):(1)

I propose for:

Temporal Entity   P4 has time-span (is time-span of) Time-Span :    "many:1, necessary, dependent"

E4 Period           P7 took place at (witnessed) Place :                      "many:many, necessary"

E5 Event            P11 had participant (participated in) Actor            "many:many, dependent",
                           comment: "In reality, Actors would at least participate in the Event that brings them about"

E7 Activity         P14 carried out by (performed)        Actor            "many:many, necessary"
                           comment: "In reality, at least one Actor should have carried out the Activity"

E8 Acquisition Event P22 transferred title to (acquired title of) Actor "many:many" (no change!)
                           comment:"In reality, the title is at least either transferred to someone or from someone."

E8 Acquisition Event P24 transferred title of (changed ownership by) Physical Stuff            "many:many, necessary"

E9 Move            P25  moved (moved by) Physical Object                                                 "many:many, necessary"

E9 Move            P26 moved to (was destination of) Place                                                  "many:many, necessary"
E9 Move            P27 moved from (was origin of) Place                                                      "many:many, necessary"

E10 Transfer of Custody P28 custody received by (received custody) Actor "many:many" (no change!)
                             comment: "In reality, the custody is at least either transferred to someone or from someone."

E10 Transfer of Custody P30 transferred custody of (custody changed by) Physical Object  "many:many, necessary"

E11 Modification Event P31 has modified (was modified by) Physical Man-Made Stuff         "many:many, necessary"

E14 Condition Assessment P34 concerned (was assessed by) Physical Stuff                          "many:many, necessary"

E14 Condition Assessment P35  has identified (identified by) Condition State                         "many:many, necessary"

E15 Identifier Assignment   P36 registered (was registered by) Physical Object                      "many:1, necessary"

E15 Identifier Assignment   P37 assigned (was assigned by) Object Identifier                         "many:1, necessary"
                             comment: "An Object Identifier might be created prior to an assignment"

E16 Measurement Event    P39 measured (was measured by) Stuff                                        "many:1, necessary"

E16 Measuremen Eventt    P40 observed dimension (was observed) Dimension                     "many:many, necessary"

E17 Type Assignment        P41 classified (was classified by) CRM Entity                               "many:1, necessary"

E17 Type Assignment        P42 assigned (was assigned by) Type                                           "many:many, necessary"

E70 Stuff                           P43 has dimension (is dimension of) Dimension                              "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff              P44 has condition (condition of) Condition State                           "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff              P45 consists of (is incorporated in) Material                                   "many:many, necessary"

E18 Physical Stuff  P53  has former or current location (is former or current location of)  Place "many:many, necessary"

E19 Physical Object          P56 bears feature (is found on) Physical Feature                             "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff             P58 has section definition (defines section) Section Definition          "1:many, dependent"

E31 Document                  P70 documents (is documented in) CRM Entity                              "many:many, necessary"

E32 Authority Document   P71 lists (is listed in) Type                                                              "many:many, necessary"

E33 Linguistic Object        P72 has language (is language of) Language                                    "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span                 P81 ongoing throughout Time Primitive                                           "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span                 P82 at some time within  Time Primitive                                          "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span                 P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of) Dimension      "1:1, necessary, dependent"

E52 Time-Span                 P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of) Dimension     "1:1, necessary, dependent"

E54 Dimension                  P90 has value Number                                                                   "many:1, necessary"

E54 Dimension                  P91 unit Measurement Unit                                                             "many:1, necessary"

E63 Beginning of Existence P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) Persistent Item "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E64 End of Existence        P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) Persistent Item    "1:many, necessary"

E65 Creation Event           P94 has created (was created by) Conceptual Object                      "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E66 Formation Event         P95 has formed (was formed by) Group                                          "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E67 Birth                           P96 by mother (gave birth) Person                                                   "many:1, necessary"

E67 Birth                           P97 from father (was father for) Person                                            "many:many, necessary"

E67 Birth                           P98 brought into life (was born) Person                                             "1:many, dependent"

E68 Dissolution                  P99 dissolved (was dissolved by) Group                                           "1:many, necessary"

E69 Death                         P100 was death of (died in) Person                                                   "1:many, necessary"

E71 Man-Made Stuff        P102 has title (is title of)  Title                                                            "many:many, dependent"
                                           comment: ". We cannot imagine a title being created without an object in mind."

E74 Group      P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) Actor         "many:many, necessary"
                              comment: "A Group necessarily consists of more than one Person."

E12 Production Event       P108 has produced (was produced by) Physical Man-Made Stuff      "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E78 Collection                  P109 is curated by (curates) Actor                                                     "many:many, necessary"

E79 Part Addition             P110 added to (was augmented by) Physical Man-Made Stuff            "many:1, necessary"

E79 Part Addition             P111 added (was added by) Physical Stuff                                         "many:many, necessary"

E80 Part Removal             P112 removed from (was diminished by) Physical Man-Made Stuff    "many:1, necessary"

E80 Part Removal             P113 removed (was removed by) Physical Stuff                                 "many:many, necessary"

E81 Transformation           P123 resulted in (was result on) Persistent Item                                  "many:many, necessary"

E81 Transformation           P124 transformed (was transformed by) Persistent Item                     "many:many, necessary"

Obviously, quite a lot of concepts depend on the existence of a relation to others. That seems to me an important element of
their definition




 Dr. Martin Doerr              |  Vox:+30(810)391625         |
 Principle Researcher          |  Fax:+30(810)391609         |
 Project Leader SIS            |  Email: martin at ics.forth.gr |
               Information Systems Laboratory                |
                Institute of Computer Science                |
   Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)   |
 Vassilika Vouton,P.O.Box1385,GR71110 Heraklion,Crete,Greece |
         Web-site: http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl               |

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